What is Artificial Intelligence?

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What is Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence:

Intelligence is an intangible part of our brain which is a combination of Reasoning, learning, problem-solving perception, language understanding, etc.

To achieve the above factors for a machine or software Artificial Intelligence requires the following discipline:

  • Mathematics
  • Biology
  • Psychology
  • Sociology
  • Computer Science
  • Neurons Study
  • Statistics

Artificial Intelligence is composed of two words Artificial and Intelligence, where Artificial defines “man-made,” and intelligence defines “thinking power”, hence AI means “a man-made thinking power.”

“It is a branch of computer science by which we can create intelligent machines which can behave like a human, think like humans, and able to make decisions.”

“AI is the reproduction of human reasoning and intelligent behavior as a computational model

“machine which can perform tasks that requires human intelligence” such as:

  • Proving a theorem
  • Playing chess
  • Plan some surgical operation
  • Driving a car in traffic

a system which can exhibit intelligent behavior, learn new things by itself, demonstrate, explain, and can advise to its user.

Why Artificial Intelligence?

Before Learning about Artificial Intelligence, we should know that what is the importance of AI and why should we learn it. Following are some main reasons to learn about AI:

  • With the help of AI, you can create such software or devices which can solve real-world problems very easily and with accuracy such as health issues, marketing, traffic issues, etc.
  • With the help of AI, you can create your personal virtual Assistant, such as Cortana, Google Assistant, Siri, etc.
  • With the help of AI, you can build such Robots that can work in an environment where survival of humans can be at risk.
  • AI opens a path for other new technologies, new devices, and new opportunities.

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE EXAMPLES

  • Manufacturing robots
  • Smart assistants
  • Proactive healthcare management
  • Disease mapping
  • Automated financial investing
  • Virtual travel booking agent
  • Social media monitoring
  • Inter-team chat tool
  • Conversational marketing bot
  • Natural Language Processing (NLP) tools

 

Advantages of Artificial Intelligence

Following are some main advantages of Artificial Intelligence:

  • High Accuracy with fewer errors: AI machines or systems are prone to fewer errors and high accuracy as it takes decisions as per pre-experience or information.
  • High-Speed: AI systems can be of very high-speed and fast-decision making, because of that AI systems can beat a chess champion in the Chess game.
  • High reliability: AI machines are highly reliable and can perform the same action multiple times with high accuracy.
  • Useful for risky areas: AI machines can be helpful in situations such as defusing a bomb, exploring the ocean floor, where to employ a human can be risky.
  • Digital Assistant: AI can be very useful to provide digital assistant to users such as AI technology is currently used by various E-commerce websites to show the products as per customer requirements.
  • Useful as a public utility: AI can be very useful for public utilities such as a self-driving car which can make our journey safer and hassle-free, facial recognition for security purposes, Natural language processing to communicate with the human in human-language, etc.

Disadvantages of Artificial Intelligence

Every technology has some disadvantages, and the same goes for Artificial intelligence. Being so advantageous technology still, it has some disadvantages which we need to keep in our mind while creating an AI system. Following are the disadvantages of AI:

  • High Cost: The hardware and software requirement of AI is very costly as it requires lots of maintenance to meet current world requirements.
  • Can’t think out of the box: Even we are making smarter machines with AI, but still they cannot work out of the box, as the robot will only do that work for which they are trained, or programmed.
  • No feelings and emotions: AI machines can be an outstanding performer, but still it does not have the feeling so it cannot make any kind of emotional attachment with humans, and may sometime be harmful to users if the proper care is not taken.
  • Increase dependency on machines: With the increment of technology, people are getting more dependent on devices and hence they are losing their mental capabilities.
  • No Original Creativity: As humans are so creative and can imagine some new ideas but still AI machines cannot beat this power of human intelligence and cannot be creative and imaginative

Domains of AI:

  • Perception
  • Computer vision
  • NLP
  • Touch sensation
  • Robotics
  • Planning
  • Expert System
  • Theorem Proving
  • Game Playing
  • Machine Learning
  • Neural Networks
  • Deep Learning

What is Intelligence Composed of?

The intelligence is intangible. It is composed of −

  • Reasoning
  • Learning
  • Problem Solving
  • Perception
  • Linguistic Intelligence

Let us go through all the components briefly −

  • Reasoning− It is the set of processes that enables us to provide a basis for judgment, making decisions, and prediction. There are broadly two types −
Inductive Reasoning Deductive Reasoning
It conducts specific observations to makes broad general statements. It starts with a general statement and examines the possibilities to reach a specific, logical conclusion.
Even if all of the premises are true in a statement, inductive reasoning allows for the conclusion to be false. If something is true of a class of things in general, it is also true for all members of that class.
Example − “Nita is a teacher. Nita is studious. Therefore, All teachers are studious.” Example − “All women of age above 60 years are grandmothers. Shalini is 65 years. Therefore, Shalini is a grandmother.”
  • Learning: It is the activity of gaining knowledge or skill by studying, practicing, being taught, or experiencing something. Learning enhances the awareness of the subjects of the study.

The ability of learning is possessed by humans, some animals, and AI-enabled systems. Learning is categorized as −

    • Auditory Learning− It is learning by listening and hearing. For example, students listening to recorded audio lectures.
    • Episodic Learning− To learn by remembering sequences of events that one has witnessed or experienced. This is linear and orderly.
    • Motor Learning− It is learning by the precise movement of muscles. For example, picking objects, Writing, etc.
    • Observational Learning− To learn by watching and imitating others. For example, a child tries to learn by mimicking her parents.
    • Perceptual Learning− It is learning to recognize stimuli that one has seen before. For example, identifying and classifying objects and situations.
    • Relational Learning− It involves learning to differentiate among various stimuli on the basis of relational properties, rather than absolute properties. For Example, Adding ‘little less’ salt at the time of cooking potatoes that came up salty last time, when cooked with adding say a tablespoon of salt.
    • Spatial Learning− It is learning through visual stimuli such as images, colors, maps, etc. For Example, A person can create a roadmap in mind before actually following the road.
    • Stimulus-Response Learning− It is learning to perform a particular behavior when a certain stimulus is present. For example, a dog raises its ear on the hearing doorbell.
  • Problem Solving− It is the process in which one perceives and tries to arrive at the desired solution from a present situation by taking some path, which is blocked by known or unknown hurdles.

Problem solving also includes decision making, which is the process of selecting the best suitable alternative out of multiple alternatives to reach the desired goal are available.

  • Perception− It is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information.

Perception presumes to sense. In humans, perception is aided by sensory organs. In the domain of AI, the perception mechanism puts the data acquired by the sensors together in a meaningful manner.

  • Linguistic Intelligence− It is one’s ability to use, comprehend, speak, and write the verbal and written language. It is important in interpersonal communication.

This was a basic introduction to Artificial Intelligence and what things come into AI if you liked it do share and comment down below and if you have any suggestion do let us know.